Except where noted, analysis is based on Kenshoo advertisers with 15 consecutive months of performance data taken from a population of over 3,000 advertiser and agency accounts across more than 40 industry categories and 150 countries, spanning Google, Amazon Advertising, Baidu, Yandex, Yahoo!, Yahoo! Japan, Pinterest, Snapchat, Facebook, Instagram and the Facebook Audience Network. Some outliers have been excluded. The resulting sample includes more than 500 billion impressions, 13 billion clicks and $5.5 billion (USD) in advertiser spending.
For charts showing impressions, clicks and spending, volume metrics have been normalized to a factor of 1 based on the initial volume for the first quarter of data. Data points from subsequent quarters are based on a multiplier from the first quarter. For example, 1.6 means that volume is 60% greater than volume on the initial quarter measured.
Ad spending and CPC are measured using Ex-FX or “Constant Currency” adjustments, where results are based on native currency, and only translated to common currency after aggregation.
Note: There may be variation in numbers for past or future digital marketing research published by Kenshoo as the rolling data set is dynamic for each new quarter.